Technology / Computers Glossary
Network Adapter: This is a hardware unit that connects a device to a communication line. For wide area networks (WAN), these adapters connect routers to the specific type of connection (T1, BRI) that is inst . . . View Full Definition
Network Basic Input - Output System (NetBIOS): A commonly used networking protocol originally developed for LANs. Operates on the Session and Transport layers of the OSI model, so doesn't make use of physical network characteristics.
Network Card: Also, Network Interface Card or NIC. This is a component of a computer that enables the computer to communicate with other computers via a direct network connection.
Network Interface Card (NIC): An adapter installed in an expansion slot or integrated onto the motherboard and allows the computer to connect to a network.
New Low-Profile eXtended (NLX): The NLX form factor features a number of improvements over the previous design LPX form factor and began heavy usage in late 1997. The popularity of the design was confirmed by massive desig . . . View Full Definition
Newsgroup: An online discussion community found on the USENET system. These groups cover thousands of different topics of information and are offered free of charge.
Node: In networks, a processing location. A node can be a computer or some other device, such as a printer. Every node has a unique network address, sometimes called a Data Link Control (DLC) addr . . . View Full Definition
Noise: Interference (static) that destroys the integrity of signals on a line. Noise can come from a variety of sources, including radio waves, nearby electrical wires, lightning, and bad connectio . . . View Full Definition
Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA): A method of configuring a cluster of microprocessor in a multiprocessing system so that they can communicate with each other, this improves performance and its expansion ability.
Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM): Any type of memory that is made non-volatile by connecting it to a constant power source, such as a battery. Therefore, non-volatile memory does not lose its contents when the main power is . . . View Full Definition
North Bridge: The main portion of the motherboard chipset that acts as an interface between the processor and other parts of the motherboard. It contains the cache, main memory, and AGP controllers, as we . . . View Full Definition
Notebook Computer: A very small computer, approximately the size of a notebook used for writing. The term is often used interchangeably with 'laptop', but is technically the much smaller version.
NT File System (NTFS): One of the file system for the Windows NT operating system (Windows NT also supports the FAT file system). NTFS has features to improve reliability, such as transaction logs to help recover . . . View Full Definition
NT Loader (NTLDR): A program loaded from the hard drive boot sector that displays the Microsoft Windows NT startup menu and helps Windows NT load.
Null Value: In computer programming, this represents something of no value. A null value could also indicate that the value for a row is either missing or not known. Placing a zero in a row would not be . . . View Full Definition
Object: Something that contains both the data and the application that operates on that data.
ODBC Administrator: Developed by Microsoft for its Windows operating systems. The icon for the ODBC is named 'Data Sources' and is located in the Control Panel under Administrative Tools in the Windows 2000 and . . . View Full Definition
OOP: Stands for Object Oriented Program. A larger program made up of smaller objects.
Opacity: The quality that defines how much light passes through an objectís pixels. If an object is 100 percent opaque, no light passes through it.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI): A reference model developed by the International Organization of Standardization. It splits networking into seven layers which provide specific services and communications standards.
Operating System (OS): The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recogni . . . View Full Definition
Optical Disk: A disk that encodes data as a series of reflecting pits that are read and written by a laser beam.
Oracle: A high-end database management software created by Oracle Corporation. Oracle's relational database pioneered the support of the SQL language which is now an industry standard.
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM): Any manufacturer that sells its product to a reseller. Most often refers to the original manufacturer of a device or component, but certain products licensed as OEM, like Windows operating s . . . View Full Definition
OSI Reference Model: (Open Systems Interconnect) A network communications software standard that consists of a seven layer structure of specified protocol and services.