Business / Agriculture Glossary
GSM-103 Short-Term Export Credit Guarantee Program: An Export Credit Guarantee Program that covers credit terms up to 10 years. The program underwrites credit extended by the private banking sector to approved foreign banks using dollar-denom . . . View Full Definition
GSM-5 Direct Export Credit Program: A federal export assistance program once operated by the Foreign Agricultural Service. Loans were made directly by the Commodity Credit Corporation at USDA-determined interest rates to forei . . . View Full Definition
Guaranteed Export Credit: A Commodity Credit Corporation guarantee of commercial export credit is available through several export credit guarantee programs.
Gully Erosion: Also called ephemeral gully erosion, this process occurs when water flows in narrow channels during or immediately after heavy rains or melting snow. A gully is sufficiently deep that it wou . . . View Full Definition
H-2A: Refers to the provision in federal immigration law under which aliens can be granted temporary visas to enter the country for work in agriculture. Farm lobbyists have sought revisions in the . . . View Full Definition
Habitat: The place where a population (e.g., human, animal, plant, microorganism) lives, characterized by physical features (e.g., desert) and/or dominant plants (e.g., deciduous forest).
Habitat Conservation Plans (Hcps): Plans prepared under the Endangered Species Act, by nonfederal parties wishing to obtain permits for incidental taking of threatened and endangered species. The number of hcps has expanded e . . . View Full Definition
Handler: Generally, the first buyer of a farmerís commodity destined for fresh market use (in contrast to processing). Under marketing orders, handlers are defined as anyone who receives the commodit . . . View Full Definition
Harmonization: The process of establishment, recognition, and application of internationally recognized measures or standards. Used most often in reference to tariffs (as in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule . . . View Full Definition
Harmonized System: The international classification system for goods, implemented by most countries on January 1, 1998, which is used for tariff classification, trade statistics, and ultimately, transport docu . . . View Full Definition
Harmonized Tariff Schedules Of The United States (HTS): This document, published and maintained by the U.S. International Trade Commission, provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all merchandise imported into the Unit . . . View Full Definition
Hart-Scott-Rodino: The Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976 establishes a notification and review process that precedes mergers and acquisitions. Generally, large companies planning a merger or . . . View Full Definition
Harvested Acres: The cropland actually harvested for a particular crop, usually somewhat smaller at the national level than planted acres due to weather damage or abandonment because of low market prices.
Hatch Act Of 1887: The permanent statute (24 Stat. 440) authorizing federal funds to state agricultural experiment stations affiliated with the land grant colleges of agriculture. Congress last amended the act . . . View Full Definition
Haying And Grazing Rules: Under previous commodity support law, farmers were permitted, for limited time periods (usually during droughts) and under specific circumstances, to harvest hay or graze cattle on land idle . . . View Full Definition
Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Point (HACCP): A production quality control system now being adopted throughout much of the food industry as a method for minimizing the entry of food borne pathogens into the food supply in order to prote . . . View Full Definition
Head Month: A monthís use and occupancy of rangeland by a single animal or equivalent. A full head monthís fee is charged for each month of grazing by adult animals if the grazing animal (1) is weaned, . . . View Full Definition
Headwaters: The source, or upper part, of a stream. Often used in discussing water rights related to wilderness or other federal land designations.
Healthy Meals For Healthy Americans Act Of 1994: P.L. 103-448 (November 2, 1994) Amendments reauthorizing several expiring programs under the National School Lunch Act and Child Nutrition Amendments of 1966 through FY1998. Required that fe . . . View Full Definition
Hectare (Ha): A metric measure of area equal to 10,000 square meters. One hectare=2.47 acres. One acre=0.405 hectares. See acre.
Hedging: Taking a position in a futures market opposite to a position held in the cash market to minimize the risk of financial loss from an adverse price change: a purchase or sale of futures contra . . . View Full Definition
Herbicide: Any pesticide used to destroy or inhibit plant growth: a weed killer.
Heritage Rivers Protection Program: A Clinton Administration initiative to deliver federal resources more efficiently and effectively that supports voluntary community efforts to enhance and protect designated rivers or river . . . View Full Definition
High Moisture Feed Grains: Corn and grain sorghum must have moisture content below CCC standards in order to qualify for marketing assistance loans. However, the FAIR Act of 1996 makes recourse loans available to prod . . . View Full Definition
High Value Products (HVP): Agricultural products that are high in value, often but not necessarily due to processing. Hvps can be divided into three groups: 1) semi-processed products, such as fresh and frozen meats, . . . View Full Definition